Carimbo or Carimbo,

Hoy os hablamos del carimbo o marca a hierro candente que se hacía a los esclavos para identificarlos como tales, su legalidad como mercancía (no de contrabando o ilegal) y recuperarlos en caso de que escaparan. La marca se les hacía en los muslos, la espalda, el pecho e incluso la cara, según su origen. Se les herraba tal y como se hace con los animales. Muchos eran moriscos, negros africanos, turcos, y en menor cantidad nativos de las Canarias e indígenas americanos.

El 13 de enero de 1532, la corona prohíbe carimbar a los esclavos indígenas en el rostro, puesto que los indígenas eran libres y no podían ser esclavos, salvo que se obtuviera autorización real o de la Casa de la Contratación, y tenían que ser herrados en presencia de un gobernador u oficial, los trámites para conseguir la autorización eran tales que desanimaba a cualquiera empezarlos.

Estas disposiciones no fueron duraderas ni eficaces, pero nos habla de unos hechos a menudo desconocidos y de los que no se suele hablar, ni siquiera en los centros educativos. Pero merece la pena imaginar una Sevilla con un porcentaje llamativo de población negra, muchos de ellos llevando una carimba en el rostro, tal vez con el anagrama “ESCLAVO”, una S y un clavo (la primera que aparece en la imagen); aunque el carimbo se usó mayormente en las colonias americanas, mucho más difíciles de controlar por las autoridades.

Otra curiosidad es que los hierros de carimbar se guardaban bajo llave en dependencias administrativas de la autoridad, o sea, que la carimba estaba perfectamente regulada por las leyes, y era como nuestros sellos de aduanas o de control de la CE o la matrícula en los coches, pues no se les consideraba más que mercancía. Y, además, por mandato real, los custodios y encargados de carimbar no podían cobrar por ello o cobrar, en todo caso, muy poco para evitar que se convirtiera en un negocio, como ya había ocurrido en algunos lugares.

Hasta 1679 no se suprimió la esclavitud indígena en los dos virreinatos y el carimbo aún tardaría un siglo más en ser prohibido completamente, ya en época ilustrada.

Si te gustaría saber más sobre los esclavos de Sevilla, en nuestra visite guiada Las culturas de Sevilla podrás aprender muchísimo sobre éstos y otros habitantes de la ciudad.

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